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ZU ECONOMICS – MLTP ACT KAN LA MAMAWHNA CHHAN

Mar 29, 2014

ZU ECONOMICS – MLTP ACT KAN LA MAMAWHNA CHHAN

Kum 2012 khan India chhim khawpui pakhatah ka zin a, ka thlenna mizo officer chhungkua nen zanriah kan ei chhuak a. Nu ber chuan, “Zu hi enge i ngaihdan?” tiin min han zawt thut mai a; a mi zawhna rilru hre lo ta chu, chhan dan turah fimkhur a ngai viau mai! KTP hruaitu leh Kohhran mi ka nihna anga chhang lovin, Commerce zirtirtu ngaihtuahna atangin ka chhang ta daih a; ka chhannaah a lungawi a ni ang, hlim takin chaw kan ei zui ta a ni. Tunlai titi leh chanchinbu luahtu ber pakhat chu Zu leh MLTP chungchang hi a ni a, sawrkar-in MLTP tih danglam a tum mek thu te leh zu khap duh leh khap duh lo te thu kan chhiar awl lo. Mi thenkhatin lehkhabu hiala ti chhuakin, zu chungchangah thutlukna dik ber nei nih kan inchuh a, ‘Mizoramah tun thlengin zu a la bo lo. Chuvang chuan MLTP Act hi a hlawhchham a, hlih a ngai a ni’ han ti tawng tawng lah bo lo! Zu hi khuahkirhna nen kan zuar thei a (regulation), duh chuan kan thlah zalen vek thei a (liberation), kan duh leh kan la khap bur thei bawk (prohibition). Eng hi nge kan ram hian kan mamawh ber tih hi zawhna pawimawh, thil dang zawng zawng aia chhan hmasak ngai a ni. Kan ramah hian policy thar siamna tur emaw tihdanglamna tur emaw thilah zir chianna lam kan ngaihthah tlangpuiin a hriat a; ‘arkhawthimdai approach’ hi a tlo duh lo fo. Zu hi khuahkhirhna tel lova chhuah zalen chi chu a ni lovin a lang phawt mai. Khawvel ram tam zawkah engtin emaw talin an khuahkhirh ngei ngei. Kan ram pawh hian prohibition emaw regulation emaw zawk zawk hi chu kan thlan tur a nih hmel. Ram changkang zawkte chuan policy thar/hman mek zirchian nan ram (social) economy-in a thatpui dan (benefit) leh a chhiatpui dan (cost) an khaikhin (analysis) thin a. UNIDO leh economist lar Little & Mellress-a ten cost-benefit zirchhianna tur kalphung an lo duan tawh zulzuiin European Union-a Executive Agency for Health and Consumers-ten zirchianna kimchang zawk an duang chhuak leh a, Zu Policy-in ram economy a tihbuai/ tihchhiat theih dan (Cost) chungchangah thil pathum ngaih pawimawh zual an nei – •    Prohibition a ni emaw Regulation a ni emaw, Policy chu tha tak leh dik taka kenkawh a nih dawn chuan sawrkar a insenso hle a ngai dawn a, khawi policy-ah nge sawrkar a insen hnem zawk ang? •    Zu sumdawnna sum lut tur in a tawrh dan tur: Zu siam leh zuartute atanga chhiah lut hi sawrkar tan chuan sum hnar pakhat a ni a. Zu hi khap lovin regulate chauh ni ta se sawrkar tan chuan sum lut a awm ngei ang a, zu sumdawnna avangin sum che vel a awm bawk dawn a ni. •    Zu in atanga hlimna a tlakhniam dan tur: Hei hi chu a mak deuh maithei! Hlimna hi a hlu a, sum tam tak man pawh a ni ngei e. Zu avanga lungawina/hlimna hi a hlut zawng chhut chhuah tur a ni a. A chhut dan pakhat chu kan inphalna zat hmangin a ni a. Entirnan- Zu no khat hi Rs. 100/- ni ta se, chu zu no khat lei nan Rs. 150/- thleng ka in huam a nih chuan (pawisa hi ka nei ngei tur a ni), zu avanga ka lungawi riau na chu Rs. 150- Rs. 100 = Rs. 50 tihna a ni. Hei hi economics tawng chuan consumer surplus kan ti. Regulation ai chuan prohibition-in he hlimna/nuam tihna hi a pawt hniam zawk dawn tihna a ni. Tin, ram economy-in a that pui dan (Benefit) turah hengte hi a ngai pawimawh hle - •    International Classification of Diseases (ICD) chuan natna khirhkhan pui pui pakua (9) chu zu vang liau liauva awm a ni a ti a, natna chi dang sawmthum (30) chuang zet pawh zu kaihhnawih natna a ni a ti. Eng policy-in nge heng natnate hi titlahniam ang a, inenkawlna senso atana sum luangral mai mai tur tur titlem ang? •    Zu hian mihringte tangkaina (productivity) a tinep nasa thei hle a, ruih chhiat viau phei chuan hna a thawh thei loh mai bakah thawhpuite tan pawh harsatna tam tak a siam phah thin. Eng policy hian nge chu chu harsatna awm thei tur chu sukiang ang? •    Zu avang hian mi tam tak rilru a na a, chhungkaw tam tak kehdarhtirtu a ni fo bawk. Natna benvawn leh hlauhawm tak tak thlentu lian ber pakhat chu stress hi a ni an ti. Pa ber zu in avanga a nupui fanaute hrehawmna leh tawrhna stress hi natna hring chhuaktu lian tak a nih theih avangin zu avanga hlimna kan chhut ang bawk khan chhut leh tur a ni. Eng policy hian nge stress avanga harsatna leh rilru lam leh chumi nghawng chhuah thil tha lo tak tak chu titlem thei zawk ang? MLTP Act hman tan tirh emaw, hman a nih lai emaw, tuna dan dinglai tih danglam tum chungchangah hian a thatna (benefit) leh that lohna (cost) khaikhinna (analysis) turin zirchianna ziktluak a la awm lo. India ram hi han thlir ila, zu atanga sum hmuh hi state thenkhatah chuan an state thawhchhuah hmun ngaa thena hmun khat (1/5th) lai a tling pha a. Mizoram-in kum 2013-14 chhunga sum a thawhchhuah beisei zat (tax & non-tax revenue) chu Rs. maktaduai 488.25 vel a ni a. Zu lo zuarin State dang lo pha ve ta ang ila, zu atangin Rs. maktaduai 97.65 vel kan la lut ve dawn tihna a ni. Amaherawhchu, chu sum chu it ngam chi an ni ang em? Khawthlang ram, zu prohibition awm lohna ram, prohibition hlih duhten kan model tur ang hiala an sawiah te zu in economy a chhe zawng leh tha zawng a a ngawng dan zirna a awm nual a. A then chauh han tarlang teh ang - USA-a Minnesota Department of Health-in a zirchiannaah chuan kum khat chhungin zu avanga senso hi zu avanga sum lak luh aiin a let 17-in a tam a. Kum khat chhunga Canada state pakhat British Columbia-a zu avanga an senso chu an sum hmuh zawng zawng aiin $ maktaduai 73-in a tam. NERA hovin London khawpui an zirchiannaah chuan kum khat chhunga sawrkar-in zu atanga sum a hmuh aiin a senso chu (chhut theih chin) £ vaibelchhe 286-in a tam zawk bawk. Ireland ram zirchhiannaah zu avanga an senso zawng zawng chu € vaibelchhia 370 a ni a, UK-a Leeds-ah zu avanga senso chu £ maktaduai 438 a ni bawk.  USA state hrang hrang-a (Minnesota, Oregon, New Mexico, Indiana, Montana) chengte khuam kum khat chhungin zu avanga sawrkar senso phuhruk nan chhiah $ 1211 vel pe ziah ang an ni. Economist pahnih, European Union pawhin zirchianna kalpui tura sum a pek hial, Anderson & Baumberg-a ten zirna hrang hrang 21 lai an khaikhawmna atangin Europe ram-ten kum khat chhunga zu avanga an senso chawhruala lakin ram sum thawhchhuah zat (Gross Domestic Product) 1.3% a tling pha a ni tih an hmu chhuak. Anderson & Baumberg-a te model kan hmang a nih chuan Mizoram hian kum khat chhunga zu vanga kan sen tur chu Rs. maktaduai 119.61 a ni dawn tihna a nih chu (Kum 2013-a Mizoram GDP chu Rs. maktaduai 9200.71). National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS)-in Karnataka State zirchianna a tlangzarhah chuan zu atanga sum hmuh Rs. 10 zelah zu avangin Rs. 16 aia tam mah an seng a. Karnataka ang hi lo ni ta ila, Mizoram chuan zu avanga kan hek pui tur chu Rs. maktaduai 156.24 a ni daih dawn! Kum 2013-ah Mizoram sawrkar leiba chu Rs. 45,82,85,00,000 a ni a, mi pakhatin leiba Rs. 41,662 kan nei mek tihna a nih chu. Zu ti zalen turin kan va hausa tawk lo ve! Chuti khawpa hlawk lo zu hi ram zawng zawng hian engvanginnge an khap beh vek mai loh le? Mark H. Moore, Professor of Criminal Justice, Harvard University tawngkam takin Democracy ram chuan a duh leh zu hlimna a chen theihna tur a nih dawn phawt chuan zu avanga thihna leh buaina zawng zawng avanga insenso pawh a huam thei a lawm. Heng ramte hian zu chungchangah hian tan chhan tha an nei lem lo - zu an in duh avangin an khap lo a ni mai. Chanchinbu leh lehkhabuah te hial mi thenkhatin ram hmangaih inti takin zu thlah zalen deuh mai an rawt a, a chhan leh vang that hmel pui pui an rawn chhawp chhuak thin. Zu atanga sum lakluh kan mamawh an tih rualin ram changkang zawkah pawh zu avanga an ram economy-in a tawrh dante kan sawi tawh. Prohibition-in kan sawrkar sum leh tha a ei hekzia te kan sawi thin; amaherawhchu, regulation kenkawh nana kan senso tur hi a tam zawk daih dawnin a lang si! MLTP Act hi hlip ila, zu tha a tam ang a, zu chhia a tlem ang kan ti maw? Zu tha kan hralh chhuah chiahin local zu a lo sumdawng tawhte sumdawnna kan chuhpui dawn tihna a ni a, anni lamin an market hum tumin tan an rawn la ngei ang. NIMHANS, Bangalore zirna hi a dik a nih ngai chuan India ramah zu tha (IMFL leh beer) litre 10 hralh a nih apiangin local zu litre 12 hralh ang a ni. Kum 2003-05 chhunga zu khap lohna state hrang hranga zu chhia thihpui zat (chanchinbu leh news-a lang chin) chu Tamil Nadu-ah 77, Karnataka-ah 37, Mumbai-ah kum 2004 khan 99 an awm a ni. State dang Orrisa, West Bengal etc. ah te pawh an awm nual mai. Zu tha lei theihna a zu chhe thihpui an tam hi a mak hran lo, India ram pum record awm chinah ngawt pawh zu in mi 60% ten local zu an la in tlat. Zu tha man a tlawm ang a, thihna a tlem ang kan ti maw?  Zu man hi lo tla hniam ta se, zu in an tam phah sawt ang. Zirna hrang hrang 132 khaikhawmnaah chuan zu man 10%-a a tlak hniam chuan 7%-in zu in an pung tih hmuchhuah a ni a. Zu in an pun chuan thin-ro natna pawh a pung ngei dawn a ni (natna dang chu lo dah tha ta rih ila). Zu leh thinro (cirrhosis) vanga thihna zir bing mi, J.A. Miron leh A.K. Dills-te chuan ram hrang hrang an zirnaah zu an in zat (consumption) a let (100%) a an tih san chuan thin ro avanga thihna a lo berah 75% in a sang ve nghal ang an ti tlat. Zu kan tih zalen chuan zu in kan thiam chho mai ang kan ti  maw? USA-a prohibition an hlih hnu kum 77-ah chuan Class 12 zirlai  41% ten zu an in fo tawh a, 24% te chuan rui hnep khawpin an in fo thin tih hmuh chhuah a ni a, kan ram hmabak a ni ve mai ang em? WHO chuan kum 15 miin zu a tem tawh chuan zu ngawl veina chance 60% a nei a lo ti mek bawk si! USA-ah vek khuan zu in thiam (social drinkers) 50% aia tam hi chu zu avangin an buai zui an ti bawk. Minnesota-ah kum 2009 khan puitling 62% te chuan thla khat chhungin vawi khat tal zu an in a, 20% te chuan rui hnepin an in bawk. India ramah ngei pawh zu in tanna kum (age of initiation) a tla hniam tual tual tih hmuh chhuah a ni a. Johnson J. Edayaranmula, ADIC-in 2007-a a zirnaah chuan 1986 khan chawhrualin kum 19 vela zu tem tan ang kan nih laiin 2006 khan kum 13.5 vel a ni tawh a. Hmeichhe zu in an pung tual tual a, zu in tan kum a hniam tual tual, rui chhe khawpa zu in (binge drinking) an ching tual tual a ti. HK Sharma, National Drug Dependence Treatment, AIIMS-a thawk zirbingnaah chuan kum khata zu vawi khat tal in thin hi 34% an ni a, thla tin in thin 20% vel thleng an nih a ring. Ni tin in thin 10% vel thleng an nih a rin theih a, zu avanga harsatna nei 5% vel an awm a rinawm bawk. NIMHANS, Bangalore 2004 zirnaah chuan thingtlang miin an sum lakluh 24% zu atan an hmang a, khawpui miin an sum lakluh 32% vel an hmang. Khap a nih ngai lohna hmunah pawh zu hi in thiam a awm lo a ni ang e, hmanlai dynasty-ho tlakchhiatna chhan zinga telh tam pawl a nih kha maw! Prohibition hi khawi ramah mah a hlawhtling lo kan ti maw? Hlawhtlinna tehfunga zir pawh a ni maithei. USA-a prohibition an hman hma (1911) aiin an hman hnu (1929) khan thin-ro natna chu a let thum dawnin a tla hniam a, zu in (consumption) zat 30-50% in a tla hniam bawk. Chutih lain, Prohibition an hlih hnuah motor accident 23,000 ai mahin a tam a, zu ruih avanga inthahna 50% ai mahin a sang bawk. USA in prohibition an hman lai khan 1/3rd in zu in zat a tla hniam hman tiin Prof. Mark H Moore, Criminal Justice, Harvard University-a Kennedy School of Government, chuan a lo sawi tawh a ni. Ani hian Prohibition dan (statute) chak lo leh politics huanga inbeihna nasa tak tuartu prohibition kha hlawhtling ve tak chu a ni a ti. Heng zawng zawng tlipna tan hei hi ka hmang duh - he ‘lei sakhua’ pui ber SUM zirna Economics chuan zu hi sual a ti! Zu hi a intu tan mai ni lo, khawtlang tan pawha buaipui tham a tlin avangin 'Demerit Goods' a tih zingah a dah a, zu atanga chhiah lak pawh hi 'Sin Tax' a ti. Mizoram hian a ngaihtuah chian a va ngai em! Ram roreltute hian Kohhran an rawn dawn lo a nih pawhin Economics Zawlnei rawn hram teh se! Dr. Laldinliana Varte Department of Commerce Mizoram University (He article-a chungchanga zawhna nei chuan madinavarte@yahoo.com-ah mi rawn bia ula)
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